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Lesson 5: Masculine and Neuter Adjectives
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The Lesson at a Glance


In this half of lesson 5 you will learn 18 frequently used Greek adjectives.


You will continue to practice recognizing the forms of ὅλος and μόνος, two quantifiers you saw in part one of this lesson.

You will learn nine frequently occurring nouns, including a couple of names, and practice seeing some of them used with adjectives.

Grammatical Discussion for this lesson is contained in Lesson 5a.

Vocabulary: 29 Common Words You Need to Know

Eighteen Adjectives

ἀγαπητός, -ή, -όν

Look at the collage below. Can you guess the meaning of ἀγαπητός?

In each slide the person or persons being treated with ἀγαπη is ἀγαπητός.

πονηρός, -ά, -όν

Examine each slide below. What is the sense of πονηρός in each one?

τὸ ἀγαθόν ἀντίθεσίς ἐστιν τοὺ πονηροῦ. (ἀγαθός is the opposite of πονηρός.)

Select the English words below that could represent a meaning of the Ancient Greek word πονηρός.

Practice typing in Greek. Set your keyboard to Greek, then for each slide below, type the words you see (γράψον τοὺς λόγους οὕς βλέπεις).

Browse through the following list of adjectives followed by two quantifiers. You will then view some images representing nine Greek nouns. Adjectives are listed with their nominative, masculine, singular ending, followed by the feminine, and neuter endings for that same case and number. Lesson five does not address the feminine forms, but they are shown here for later reference.

Frequency Greek Adjective English Gloss


ἀγαθός, -ή, -όν



ἀγαπητός, -ή, -όν

loved, beloved


ἅγιος, -α, -ον



αἰώνιος, -α, -ον

eternal (aeon = an extremely long period)


δεξιός, -ά, -όν

right (as opposed to left)
When δεξιός is used as a noun it should be translated as “right hand” or “right side.”


δίκαιος, -α, -ον

righteous, just


ἕκαστος, -η, -ον



ἔσχατος, -η, -ον

last, final (eschatology = theory of last things or end times)


ἕτερος, -α, -ον

other, another (of a different kind)


Ίουδαῖος, -α, -ον

Jewish (Judea = the land of the Jewish people)
The adjective Ἰουδαῖος is sometimes used like a noun. In such cases it must be translated “Jew” or “Judean.” The feminine form (to be studied later) is often used as a noun to refer to the region of Judea.


κακός, -ή, -όν

bad (cacophony = a lot of noise/bad sounds)


καλός, -ή, -όν

good, beautiful (caligraphy = beautiful writing)


νεκρός, -ά, -όν

dead, useless (necrophilia = a psychological disorder involving obsession with dead bodies)
The adjective νεκρός is sometimes used as a noun. In such cases it should be translated “dead person,” “dead body,” or “corpse.”


πιστός, -ή, -όν

faithful, trustworthy


πονηρός, -ά, -όν

bad, useless, painful


πρεσβύτερος, -α, -ον

older, elder
The adjective πρεσβύτερος is frequently used as a noun. In such cases it should be translated “elder,” “presbyter,” or “older person.”


πρῶτος, -η, -ον

first, earlier, foremost (prototype = first model)


τυφλός, -ή, -όν

When τυφλός is used as a noun it should be translated “blind person.”

Two Quantifiers

Frequency Greek Word English Gloss


ὅλος, -η, -ον

whole, entire, complete, altogether


μόνος, -η, -ον

only, alone, deserted, isolated (monogamy = marriage to only one person)

Nine Nouns

Here are a few more second declension nouns. Use the slider to advance from one picture to the next. Look at each picture and the Greek word it contains. Rather than trying to think of an English word with a similar meaning, just associate the Greek word with the image.

The words in the list below are given in the same way as in lesson four, beginning with the nominative singular form, followed by the genitive singular ending, then the appropriate form of the article.

Frequency Greek Word English Gloss


κόσμος, -ου, ὁ

world, universe, earth, humankind (Cosmos = universe)


λαός, -οῦ, ὁ

people, crowd, populace


ὀφθαλμός, -οῦ, ὁ

eye, sight (ophthalmologist = eye doctor)


οὐρανός, -οῦ, ὁ

sky, heaven
The word οὐρανός is sometimes used figuratively to refer to God.


ὄχλος, -ου, ὁ

crowd, multitude


Παῦλος, -ου, ὁ



Πέτρος, -ου, ὁ



υἱός, -οῦ, ὁ

The plural form of υἱός is often used to refer to groups of both sons and daughters. In such instances it should be translated as "children."


Χριστός, -οῦ, ὁ

Christ, Anointed One, Messiah

Now work on the Reading and Translation exercise below. After completing all of the exercises, return to this vocabulary lists and see how many words you recognize. Pay particular attention to any you do not.

Reading and Translation

  1. [Translate τίς as “who” in this first example.]

    τίς. . . ἐστὶν ὁ πιστός δούλος; (Matthew 24:45)

  2. ὁ υἱός μου

  3. ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπιτός

  4. [οὕτος = this]

    οὕτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπιτός (Matthew 3:17)

  5. [σύ = you]

    σύ εἶ ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπιτός (Mark 1:11)

  6. How is εἶ translated in the previous sentence?

  7. [ἐγώ = I; ποιμὴν = shepherd]

    Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός

  8. [ὄνομα is a neuter 3rd declension noun. Translate it as “name” in the sentence below. Use the article (τό) to determine its function in the sentence.
    αύτός = he, she, it]

    ἅγιον τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ (Luke 1:49)

  9. πιστὸς ὁ θεός (1 Corinthians 1:9)

  10. πιστός ἐστιν καὶ δίκαιος (1 John 1:9)

  11. [οὕτος = this]

    οὕτοι οἱ λόγοι (Revelation 22:6)

  12. οὕτοι οἱ λόγοι πιστοί (Revelation 22:6)

  13. ὁ. . . νόμος ἅγιος (Romans 7:12)

  14. [ὑπηκόος + dative = listening (to someone)
    ὑπηκόος + genitive = obedient (to someone)
    ἡμᾶς = us
    γενέσθαι = to be]

    ὑπηκόους ἡμᾶς . . . γενέσθαι τῷ θεῷ (1 Clement 14.1)

  15. [δίκαιος = right, correct, righteous
    ὅσιος = holy
    οὖν = therefore]

    Δίκαιον οὖν καὶ ὅσιον, ὑπηκόους ἡμᾶς . . . γενέσθαι τῷ θεῷ (1 Clement 14.1)

  16. Where does "it is" come from in the translation above?

Vocabulary Quiz

Review the vocabulary lists above, then take the Vocabulary Quiz provided here.